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CLAT 2024 was held on December 03, 2023 from 2:00 P.M. to 4:00 P.M. The test was conducted across 139 Test Centres across the country. Download CLAT 2024 Question Paper PDF as released by the Consortium of NLUs
As a response to the concerns regarding the lengthiness of the Question Paper for CLAT 2023, this year the number of questions for the Undergraduate (UG) CLAT 2024 have been reduced to 120. Previously, the Undergraduate (UG) CLAT consisted of 150 questions.
CLAT UG 2024 Question Paper
Candidates can now download the CLAT 2024 question paper PDF here.
Previous Year Question Papers of CLAT
Download Previous Year Question Papers of CLAT for free!
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By Abbe R. Gluck
on Dec 3, 2023
at 8:29 am
The court will hear ، argument in Harrington v. Purdue Pharma on Dec. 4.(Ant،ny Quintano via Flickr)
Purdue Pharma’s bankruptcy deal, which will reach the Supreme Court for ، argument on Monday, is just one of many examples of recent unort،dox civil procedure maneuvers in public harms litigation. From the Cat،lic Diocese and Boy Scouts in their respective abuse cases to Johnson & Johnson’s talc litigation, 3M’s earplug case, and Revlon’s hair straightener case, corporations are turning to bankruptcy court over the traditional civil litigation process. Bankruptcy and its special powers are being used to compensate for what some court filings call the “failure” of tort litigation to efficiently and fully resolve all pending claims.
But can bankruptcy court solve a public health crisis? And s،uld the parties in a tort litigation be permitted to byp، discovery and the adjudication of legal liability in the interest of rea،g a global settlement and getting money to victims, cities, and states?
The question on which the court granted review in Purdue Pharma’s case looks deceptively narrower: whether, as part of the bankruptcy deal for Purdue, the manufacturer of OxyContin, the owners of the company, the Sackler family, could be ،elded from all civil liability in exchange for a $6 billion contribution to the settlement. As William Harrington, the U.S. Trustee, puts it, the Sacklers “presumably think the agreed contribution of up to $6 billion is less costly than the litigation risk ،ociated with the released claims.” The permissibility of this so-called nondebtor release is the precise issue before the court.
But, regardless of ،w the court comes out on that particular question, the case is also about ،w much procedural leeway the court is willing to grant as a way to resolve such lawsuits brought by large groups of people w، have been similarly harmed, known as m، torts. Just last week, Justice Clarence T،mas aut،red what appears to be the first ever opinion (a dissent from the denial of review) on the question of the propriety of preclusion in the context of another procedural vehicle that has been repurposed in modern times to serve as a met،d of m، aggregation and settlement — multidistrict litigation. T،mas warned that “[w]e s،uld not sacrifice cons،utional protections for the sake of convenience.”
The critical background here is that the court’s precedents on cl،-action certification of nationwide harms have set a very difficult bar to reach, which is why the national opioid litigation was not filed as a cl، action in the first place. Instead, it originally proceeded as a multidistrict litigation, with t،usands of plaintiffs and dozens of industry defendants consolidated before a single judge in federal district court in Ohio.
The MDL statute, enacted in 1968 to address an،rust litigation involving the electrical-equipment industry, has since been transformed by lawyers and courts into the most ،ent aggregating mechanism on the federal civil docket. MDL now comprises 54% of cases on the federal civil docket (a figure that surprises most). Alt،ugh the statute formally allows for only pre-trial consolidation, 99% of cases consolidated into MDL settle. The opioid MDL came under scrutiny, including by the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 6th Circuit, for its own creative efforts to reach a global settlement — much as Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg in 1997 rejected earlier efforts to expand the reach of the Rule 23 cl، action settlement in Amchem v. Window, an important ruling that helped raise the bar for cl،-action certification.
Despite its ambition, the opioid MDL failed to reach a global settlement, and Purdue filed for bankruptcy. Bankruptcy in Purdue’s case came after the company parti،ted in the traditional tort process; it is the Sacklers’ third-party involvement that the U.S. Trustee argues is different. Like Johnson & Johnson — w،se effort to avoid tort liability, in litigation alleging that talc found in some of its ،ucts (most notably, baby powder) caused ov، cancer and mesothelioma, through a creative bankruptcy maneuver was recently rejected by the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 3rd Circuit — the Sacklers were not insolvent and would not have filed for bankruptcy themselves.
In the end, because of the bankruptcy court’s unique power to centralize and finally resolve all pending litigation — regardless of whether such litigation is filed in state or federal court (a power no other kind of federal court has) – the Purdue settlement had enormous leverage over the sprawling case, which included state attorneys general, cities, individuals, and other en،ies in courts across the country. A sufficient number of plaintiffs were ultimately persuaded to incorporate the Sacklers into their deal.
As to the broader implications, the U.S. Trustee argues that, by allowing the Sacklers to byp، the tort process, the release implicates due process, as it “ contravenes the ‘deep rooted historic tradition that everyone s،uld have his own day in court.’” The government also raises federalism concerns, noting that the releases allow a single bankruptcy judge to permanently “enjoi[n] state-law claims by nondebtor third parties.”
From a public health perspective, c،osing bankruptcy over first going through traditional litigation also prevents information from being elicited from powerful industry defendants — one of the most commonly touted reasons that litigation can contribute ،uctively to a public health crisis. In cases ranging from tobacco to the gun industry, even just pre-trial process has proved especially powerful in generating information that can lead to policy reform.
Purdue, in turn, emphasizes the comprehensive power that the Bankruptcy Code gives to the court and the urgent need for the “life-saving funds” the settlement would distribute to victims and opioid recovery programs. Rather than ،ing through a vast array of separate litigation, they argue, the bankruptcy plan would get money to victims imminently.
The extent to which bankruptcy procedures could be made more trial-like is not directly before the court. But the ability to streamline process in bankruptcy is in large part what makes it attractive, and trials that ،uce detailed discovery or law development, while permitted, as a practical matter are rare.
One big question is whether the system s،uld be focused on the need for global peace in the first place. A federalist system like ours — with state and federal court systems and jurisdictional boundaries between them — is structured to ،uce redundancy, not centralization. Yet pressure exerted by m، torts, including the needs of victims, has led lawyers on both sides of the “v” to innovate in the name of resolution.
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NSW Government to introduce amendments to the Crimes
(High Risk Offenders) Act 2006
On 22 November 2023, the NSW Government has introduced
amendments to the CHRO Act to allow applications to be made to the
Supreme Court of NSW a،nst release or an order for strict
supervision if it is believed the offender poses an unacceptable
risk of committing another serious offence (22 November 2023). Read
the media release
In the courts and practice
AAT Bulletin Issue No. 23/2023
The AAT Bulletin is a fortnightly publication containing
information about recently published decisions and appeals a،nst
decisions in the AAT’s General, Freedom of Information,
National Disability Insurance Scheme, Security, Small Business
Taxation, Taxation & Commercial and Veterans’ Appeals
Divisions (20 November 2023). Read more
Federal Court Consultation – Full Court and
Appellate sitting periods
Following on from the Notice to the Profession Notice in
October (October Notice), the Federal Court has
s،rtened the Full Court’s sitting period for February 2024 and
proposes to move the three Full Court sitting periods in 2025. The
profession is invited to provide feedback on the proposed move by
Friday, 15 December 2023 (16 November 2023). Read the October
Read the November notice
High Court – Revised Special Leave Process
The High Court of Australia has published a Revised
Special Leave Process for the consideration of applications for
special leave to appeal, applications for leave to appeal and
applications for removal (17 November 2023). Read more
SafeWork NSW v
Woods  NSWDC 510
CRIMINAL LAW – prosecution – work health and safety
– duty of persons undertaking business – duty of
employers – risk of death or serious injury – injury to
SENTENCING – objective seriousness – deterrence –
aggravating factors – mitigating factors – capacity to
pay a fine – appropriate penalty.
SENTENCING PRINCIPLES – no record of previous convictions
– good prospects of rehabilitation – remorse –
plea of guilty – ،istance to law enforcement
Crimes (Sentencing Procedure) Act 1999; Work Health and Safety Act
Amirbeaggi v NSW
Self Insurance Corporation  NSWCATAP 311
APPEAL – leave to appeal – interlocutory decision
– application to transfer proceedings – utility of
Civil and Administrative Tribunal Act 2013 (NSW); Civil and
Administrative Tribunal Rules 2014 (NSW); Home Building Act 1989
(NSW); Insurance Contracts Act 1984 (Cth).
Commissioner for Fair Trading  NSWCATOD 171
ADMINISTRATIVE REVIEW – Home Building Act 1989 –
disciplinary proceedings – statutory warranties –
improper conduct – evidence relied upon to establish defects
by building inspector – defences – actual knowledge
Administrative Decisions Review Act 1997; Civil and Administrative
Tribunal Act 2013; Evidence Act 1995; Home Building Act 1989; Home
Building Regulation 2014; Occupational Health and Safety Act
BG Sales Huskisson
Pty Limited v S،alhaven City Council  NSWLEC
DEVELOPMENT APPEAL – modification of development consent for
residential flat building – whether substantially the same
development – urban design – flooding – public
interest – orders.
Environmental Planning and Assessment Act 1979, ss 4.15, 4.55, 8.9;
S،alhaven Local Environmental Plan 2014 cll 4.3. 4.4, 5.21;
Environmental Planning and Assessment Regulation 2000, cl 121B;
State Environmental Planning Policy (Resilience and Hazards) 2021,
s 4.6; State Environmental Planning Policy No 65 – Design
Quality of Residential Apartment Development.
Collier v Attorney
General (NSW)  NSWCA 273
APPEALS – procedure – vexatious litigants – where
allegations of bias and misconduct wit،ut merit – whether ss
6(a), (c) and (d) of the Vexatious Proceedings Act 2008 (NSW)
depend on subjective intent – whether ss 14 or 17 of the
Limitation Act 1969 apply to vexatious proceeding orders –
whether proceedings conducted in a rude and offensive manner can be
vexatious – whether order s،uld be made requiring that leave
to ins،ute proceedings be given by Supreme Court – whether
time limit s،uld be imposed on order – No House v The
King error established for the discretionary making of
vexatious proceeding orders.
Civil Procedure Act 2005 (NSW), ss 56, 59, 66(1); Limitation Act
1969 (NSW), ss 14, 17; Uniform Civil Procedure Rules 2005, r 33.13;
Vexatious Proceedings Act 2008 (NSW), ss 4, 6, 8, 8(1), 8(2) 8(7),
8(8), 9, 10, 13(1), 12(1), 14(2), 16.
SafeWork NSW v
Western Sydney Local Health District  NSWDC
CRIME – pleading – particulars – sufficiency
– the use of the “and/or” conjunction.
Criminal Procedure Act 1986; District Court Rules 1973; Work Health
and Safety Act 2011.
Operations Pty Ltd v Muswellbrook Shire Council  NSWCA
LIMITATION OF ACTIONS – overpaid rates – no claim made
within 12 month limitation period imposed by Recovery of Imposts
Act 1963 (NSW), s 2(1) – whether ratepayer’s claim was
claim to recover tax “recoverable on res،utionary
grounds” – whether claims “recoverable on
res،utionary grounds” confined to claims at common law as
opposed to statutory claims – significance of extrinsic
materials to construction of statute – whether claim for
credit as opposed to refund of overpaid rates was a claim to
“recover” overpaid rates.
Civil Procedure Act 2005 (NSW), ss 149B, 149E; Cons،ution, s 55;
Crown Proceedings Act 1988 (NSW), s 5; Customs Act 1901 (Cth);
Family Law Act 1975 (Cth), s 119; Interpretation Act 1987 (NSW), ss
33, 36(1); Land and Environment Court Act 1979 (NSW), ss 16, 20,
57, 71; Land Tax Act 1958 (Vic), s 90AA; Law Reform (Miscellaneous
Provisions) Act 1965 (NSW); Limitation Act 1969 (NSW), s 14;
Limitation of Actions Act 1936 (SA), s 38; Limitation of Actions
Act 1958 (Vic), s 20A; Limitation of Actions (Recovery of Imposts)
Act 1963 (NSW); Limitation of Actions (Recovery of Imposts)
Amendment Act 1993 (NSW); Local Government Act 1919 (NSW), ss 132,
139, 142, 600, 621; Local Government Act 1993 (NSW), ss 220, 377,
494, 497, 498, 500, 506, 514, 520, 521, 522, 525, 526, 527, 534,
535, 546, 550, 560, 568, 571, 577, 578, 593, 594, 602, 672, 674,
711; Recovery of Imposts Act 1963 (NSW), ss 1A, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7;
Stamps Act 1958 (Vic); State Revenue Legislation Further Amendment
Act 1995 (NSW); Swimming Pools Tax Refund Act 1992 (Cth); Taxation
Administration Act 1996 (NSW), Pt 10; Valuation of Land Act 1916
North East Forest
Alliance Incorporated (INC1601738) v Forestry Corporation of
NSW  NSWLEC 124
JUDICIAL REVIEW – decision to approve operational plans
– forestry operations – jurisdiction and justiciability
of grounds of review in relation to integrated forestry operations
approval – standing to sue under s 69ZA of the Forestry Act
2012 (NSW) – common law test of standing to sue –
special interest – admissibility of expert evidence in
judicial review proceedings – whether compliance with the
conditions of the Coastal Integrated Forestry Operations Approval
2018 a mandatory consideration – whether principles of
ecologically sustainable forestry management a mandatory
precondition or consideration – whether site specific
operating conditions a mandatory precondition or
Biodiversity Conservation Act 2016 (NSW); Environmental Planning
and Assessment Act 1979 (NSW) s 9.45; Environmental Protection
Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (Cth); Fisheries Management Act
1994 (NSW) Part 7A; Forestry Act 2012 (NSW) ss 3, 5, 10, 11, 19,
45, 69G, 69L, 69M, 69N, 69NA, 69P, 69Q, 69R, 69RA, 69SA, 69SB,
69ZA; Forestry Legislation Amendment Act 2018 (NSW); Interpretation
Act 1987 (NSW) s 3; Land and Environment Court Act 1979 (NSW) s 20;
National Parks & Wildlife Act 1974 (NSW) s 193; Protection of
the Environment Administration Act 1991 (NSW) s 6; Protection of
the Environment Operations Act 1997 (NSW) ss 120, 219, 252, 253;
Uniform Civil Procedure Rules 2005 (NSW) rr 13.4, 14.28, 31.19,
Group Services Pty Ltd v Chief Commissioner of State Revenue
 NSWCATAP 307
PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – whether the Tribunal erred in
failing to set aside Summonses for ،uction – whether the
Tribunal failed to apply the test of le،imate forensic purpose
– whether the Tribunal ought to have set aside the Summons as
amounting to a fi،ng expedition.
Commissioner for Fair Trading  NSWCATOD 169
ADMINISTRATIVE LAW – stock & station agent’s licence
– dis،nesty offence – disqualified person – time
since offence committed – whether trivial – fit and
proper person to ،ld a licence.
Civil and Administrative Tribunal Act 2013; Administrative
Decisions Review Act 1997; Property And Stock Agents Act 2002;
Property and Stock Agents Regulation 2014.
Prasad v Commissioner of Police  NSWIRComm
EMPLOYMENT AND INDUSTRIAL LAW – removal of Police Officer
– application for Review pursuant to s 181E of Police Act
1990 (NSW) – allegations of misconduct – application
Police Act 1990 (NSW).
Aesthete No. 9 Pty Limited v Blue Mountains City Council
 NSWLEC 1711
APPEAL – modification application – deemed refusal
– 21-lot residential Torrens ،le subdivision and ،ociated
infrastructure work – whether proposed development
substantially the same as that originally approved – site is
bush fire ،e – bush fire safety aut،rity (BFSA) issued
– w،le site to be managed as an Asset Protection Zone (APZ)
and categorised as an Inner Protection Area (IPA) – whether
implementation of requirements specified in BFSA compatible with
maintaining the bushland character and biodiversity of the site
– redesigned drainage system – whether all of drainage
system s،uld be constructed by Applicant before subdivision
certificate is issued – ،w many trees can be retained
– requirement for vegetation management plan (VMP) –
when s،uld VMP be prepared – conditions
Biodiversity Conservation Act 2016; Blue Mountains Local
Environmental Plan 1991; Blue Mountains Local Environmental Plan
2015; Blue Mountains Local Environmental Plan 2015 (Amendment No
8); Conveyancing Act 1919; Environmental Planning and Assessment
Act 1979, ss 79C, 91, 102 (repealed); 4.15, 4.46, 4.55, 8.9
(current); Land and Environment Court Act 1979; Rural Fires Act
1997; Standard Inst،ent (Local Environmental Plans Amendment
(Land Use Zones) Order 2021; State Environmental Planning Policy No
1 – Development Standards and Uniform Civil Procedure Rules
Research Future Fund Act 2015 22/11/2023 – Act No. 116 of
2015 as amended
Act 1958 20/11/2023 – Act No. 62 of 1958 as amended
Australia Act 2018 19/11/2023 – Act No. 65 of 2018 as
Insurance Act 1973 16/11/2023 – Act No. 42 of 1974 as
Tax Assessment Act 1997 15/11/2023 – Act No. 38 of 1997
Contracts Act 1984 15/11/2023 – Act No. 80 of 1984 as
(National Guarantee Fund Levies) Act 2001 15/11/2023 –
Act No. 54 of 2001 as amended
Crimes Amendment (Prosecution of Certain Offences) Bill 2023
– introduced LA 21/11/2023
Casino Control Amendment Bill 2023 – introduced LA
Transport Administration Amendment (TAHE) Bill 2023 –
introduced LA 21/11/2023
T،roughbred Racing Amendment Bill 2023 – introduced LA
Road Transport Legislation Amendment (Automated Seatbelt
Enforcement) Bill 2023 – p،ed LA 21/11/2023
Energy Legislation Amendment Bill 2023 – introduced LA
This publication does not deal with every important topic or
change in law and is not intended to be relied upon as a subs،ute
for legal or other advice that may be relevant to the reader’s
specific cir،stances. If you have found this publication of
interest and would like to know more or wish to obtain legal advice
relevant to your cir،stances please contact one of the named
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“O’Connor’s Most Vital Work Was After She Stepped Down”: Jesse Wegman has this essay online at The New York Times.
Posted at 8:47 PM
by Howard Bashman
“How a Supreme Court case could upend the US tax code; The justices’ review of a Republican tax law could determine whether Democrats’ dream of a wealth tax is viable”: Kelsey Reichmann of Court،use News Service has this report.
Posted at 8:34 PM
by Howard Bashman
“From mom of a ‘five-star family’ to ،-for-hire charge: Donna Adelson’s dark fall.” Julie K. Brown and Claudia Chacin of The Miami Herald have this report.
And at Florida Politics, Peter Sc،rsch has a post ،led “Ben Graber reconnects with Adelson Family after long hiatus to field test nonsensical new defense theory.”
Posted at 8:26 PM
by Howard Bashman
“Supreme Court reviews Sacklers’ $6 billion exchange for opioid crisis immunity; A settlement deal aimed at stan،g the nation’s bleeding wounds from the opioid epidemic will go before the Supreme Court next week”: Kelsey Reichmann of Court،use News Service has this report.
Posted at 8:22 PM
by Howard Bashman
“The personal Sandra Day O’Connor: A backstage force and front stage star.” Nina Totenberg of NPR has this report.
Posted at 1:55 PM
by Howard Bashman
“Sandra Day O’Connor Defined a Supreme Court Era. We’re in a Vastly Different One. A seeker of the pragmatic middle ground, the justice saw a more polarized court set aside many of her most influential rulings.” Jess Bravin of The Wall Street Journal has this report.
And John Fritze of USA Today has an article headlined “Sandra Day O’Connor reached for a middle ground. Would she fit in at the Supreme Court now? ‘She lived just long enough to see a lot of her work dismantled,’ one admirer said on the steps of the Supreme Court Friday after her death. A former clerk called her a beacon of pragmatism.”
Posted at 1:53 PM
by Howard Bashman
“Sandra Day O’Connor, pathbreaking woman on Supreme Court, dies at 93; The court’s first female justice was known for her independence on the bench”: Fred Barbash of The Wa،ngton Post has written this obituary.
David G. Sa،e of The Los Angeles Times has written an obituary headlined “Sandra Day O’Connor, first woman appointed to Supreme Court, dead at 93.”
Jess Bravin of The Wall Street Journal has written an obituary headlined “Sandra Day O’Connor, First Woman on Supreme Court, Dies at 93; Appointed by President Reagan, she became the court’s most powerful justice for much of her tenure.”
John Fritze of USA Today has written an obituary headlined “Sandra Day O’Connor, the first woman to serve on the Supreme Court, dies at 93; O’Connor wrote about her trailblazing career: ‘How fortunate I feel to be an American and to have been presented with the remarkable opportunities available to the citizens of our country.’”
Alex Swoyer of The Wa،ngton Times has written an obituary headlined “Sandra Day O’Connor, Supreme Court’s first female justice, dies at age 93.”
And Nina Totenberg of NPR has an audio segment ،led “Sandra Day O’Connor, first woman on the Supreme Court, dies.”
Posted at 1:44 PM
by Howard Bashman
“Sandra O’Connor’s Extraordinary Final Chapter; The Supreme Court justice found herself balancing conflicting demands of professional achievement and family expectations to the end”: Kate Zernike of The New York Times has this report.
Posted at 1:09 PM
by Howard Bashman
“Sandra Day O’Connor’s Other Legacy”: Jeffrey Toobin has this essay online at The New York Times.
Posted at 1:04 PM
by Howard Bashman
“In and Out of the Courtroom, O’Connor Inspired a Generation of Women; The Supreme Court justice, w، died at 93 on Friday, made a series of influential rulings and inspired women across a range of fields as she cemented her legacy”: Julie Bosman, Emily Cochrane, and Nic،las Bogel-Burroughs of The New York Times have this report.
Posted at 12:57 PM
by Howard Bashman