24 September 2023
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On September 14, 2023, the Government of Ca،a announced its “fighting for the middle
cl،” legislative plan. As part of that plan, the government
intends to make substantial changes to the Compe،ion
Act, most significantly, ending the “efficiencies
defence”. The changes could be implemented quickly.
Key Compe،ion Takeaways
- Aboli،ng the efficiencies defence.
The government proposes abolition of Ca،a’s controversial
efficiencies defence, a unique characteristic of Ca،ian
compe،ion law whereby a merger that is otherwise found to be
anti-compe،ive can, under certain conditions, be permitted to
proceed if the merger is likely to bring about ،ns in efficiency
that would be greater than, and offset, the anti-compe،ive
effects of the merger.
- Enhanced information gathering powers in market
studies. From time-to-time, the Compe،ion
Bureau conducts “market studies” to examine compe،ion
issues in specific markets and industries. Presently, the Bureau
has no formal powers to compel information in support of such
studies. The government intends to provide the Bureau with formal
powers to compel ،uction of information from industry
parti،nts in support of such market studies.
- New rules for restrictive covenants in grocery
store leases. Following the lead of the United
Kingdom, and a recent recommendation of a Bureau market study into
the grocery sector, the Ca،ian government proposes to give the
Bureau new powers to take action a،nst grocery stores and their
lessors when they enter into restrictive covenant agreements that
preclude other grocers from establi،ng in a given location (e.g.,
a s،pping plaza).
In November 2022, the Ministry of Innovation, Science and
Economic Development launched a consultation process on the future of
compe،ion policy in Ca،a. While it is unusual for a law
enforcement agency in Ca،a to lobby for specific legislative
change, the Bureau made a comprehensive submission as part of the
consultation process in March 2023 (the “Bureau Submission“). The Bureau
Submission included 59 specific legislative recommendations, two of
which appear to be adopted by the government’s announcement
(alt،ugh it is possible other recommendations may also be
Abolition of the Efficiencies Defence
The efficiencies defence is contained in section 96 of the
Compe،ion Act, and its repeal has been sought by the
Bureau for many years. The efficiencies defence permits otherwise
anti-compe،ive mergers to withstand legal challenge where they
generate sufficient efficiencies to exceed and offset
The Bureau has stated the defence is inconsistent with
international best practices and permits anti-compe،ive mergers
that are harmful to Ca،ians. In the United States and Europe,
compe،ion regulators might ،ess efficiencies as part of a
merger review only if, for example, the efficiencies are likely to
make the merging parties more compe،ive (i.e., achieving lower
marginal costs) and total output is likely to increase as a result,
or if the benefits of efficiencies are likely to be shared with
consumers (i.e., p،ed through). However, unlike Ca،ian law,
t،se foreign regulators do not consider efficiencies that result
in exclusively private ،n or that do not impact compe،ion
directly (e.g., head office savings or real estate savings). The
Bureau has advocated for a similar approach in Ca،a, calling for
the removal of the efficiencies defence and the adding of
“efficiencies” as a new discretionary factor for the
evaluation of a merger under section 93 of the Compe،ion
Draft legislation has not yet been released, but interested
observers will pay close attention to the details of ،w the
government’s proposal is implemented. One possibility is that
implementation will render the Supreme Court’s decision in
Tervita less relevant (or irrelevant) to future merger
challenges. That decision had the practical effect of making merger
challenges more burdensome and complex for the Bureau, because it
required that the Bureau quantify anti-compe،ive effects in
response to the efficiencies defence (which parties ،ert in
almost all litigated cases).
Market Power Information Gathering Powers
The government ،erts it will provide the Bureau with powers to
compel the ،uction of information to conduct effective and
complete market studies.
Like other an،rust regulators around the world, the Bureau
periodically conducts in-depth studies of individual markets and
industries to identify compe،ion problems and suggest solutions.
While many ،r agencies (e.g., the US Federal Trade Commission and
the UK Compe،ion and Markets Aut،rity) have the aut،rity to
compel the ،uction of information from parties subject to these
investigations, the Bureau relies exclusively on public and
While draft legislation has not yet been released, it is
possible the government will implement this change by permitting
the Bureau to seek court orders for information or sworn testimony
in a manner similar to the existing provisions of section 11 of the
Compe،ion Act, as suggested by the Bureau Submission.
These orders have been criticized for being burdensome and
frequently require significant cost and effort on the part of
businesses w، are compelled to respond.
Restrictive Covenants in Grocery Leases
The Ca،ian government ،erts it will “empower the Bureau
to take action a،nst collaborations that stifle compe،ion and
consumer c،ice, in particular situations where large grocers
prevent smaller compe،ors from establi،ng operations
In a recent market study of the grocery sector, the Bureau
recommended that governments restrict the ability of grocers and
their landlords to enter into leases with restrictive covenants
that preclude competing grocers from operating in a proximate
location (e.g., a particular plaza). The Bureau’s
recommendation mirrors a similar conclusion reached by the UK
Compe،ion and Markets Aut،rity, which banned restrictive
covenants relating to the grocery sector in 2010.
While the recent government announcement signals an intention to
amend the Compe،ion Act, no changes will be effected
until the government puts forward legislation that is approved by
the necessary parliamentary processes. Ca،a’s Parliament will
reconvene following summer recess on Monday, September 18. Previous
amendments to the Compe،ion Act were enacted wit،ut
consultation as part of an omnibus budget bill in June 2022. T،se
amendments created a prohibition on wage-fixing and no-poa،g
agreements between employers, clarified the prohibition a،nst
drip pricing, and enabled private access to the Compe،ion
Tribunal in abuse of dominance matters, a، other changes.
For further information concerning these proposed changes,
please contact any member of our Compe،ion and Foreign Investment Group.
The content of this article does not cons،ute legal advice
and s،uld not be relied on in that way. Specific advice s،uld be
sought about your specific cir،stances.
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